POL - Problemorientiertes Lernen

In Abkehr vom traditionell-enzyklopädischen Wissenserwerb, bei dem disparate Fächerstoffe additiv und dozentenabhängig gelernt werden, zielt problemorientiertes Lernen (POL) auf eine fächerübergreifende Integration von Inhalten, die in aktiven und selbstreflexiven Lernprozessen anzueignen sind. Das alte Modell des lehrerabhängigen, vorwiegend rezeptiven Lernens wird stärker zu einem tutorunterstützten, selbstverantwortlichen und recherchierkompetenten Lernen, das mehr ,aus eigener Kraft’ leistet.

Das Kernstück des POL, die problemorientierte Lehr-Lernspirale, initiiert ein (im medizinischen Bereich) patientenzentriertes, fächerübergreifendes und zugleich am Forschungsprozeß orientiertes Lernen (im Sinne der Arbeitsphasen ,Problemstellung - Hypothesen - Befund – Ergebnisdiskussion’).

Die acht Schritte der problemorientierten Lehr-Lernspirale sind:

  1. Problempräsentation
  2. Hypothesenbildung
  3. Hypothesendiskussion und –gewichtung
  4. Reflexion der eigenen Denkrationalen
  5. Diagnose der Wissenslücken und Überführung in Lernziele
  6. Lernzielgesteuertes Selbststudium
  7. Synthese des Gelernten und
  8. Rückbezug auf die anfängliche Problemstellung.

Wir geben eine Übersicht über die mittlerweile umfangreiche Literatur zum Thema "Problemorientiertes Lernen". Interessierten empfehlen sich zum Einstieg insbesondere die Schriften von Barrows (The Tutorial Process), Schmidt & Norman (The Psychological Basis of Problem-Based Learning) und Walton und Matthews (Essential of Problem-Based Learning), die im Studiendekanat erhältlich sind.

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